For more information: AAUW Fact Sheets and Position Papers on Affirmative Action, Athletics, Education, Managed Care Reform, Reproductive Rights, and Social Security Reform.
Equal Pay Day Action Kit, a Guide to taking action on Equal Pay Day - Whether you want to run your own Equal Pay Day event or just show your support and spread the word, this guide will connect you with the ideas and resources you need to make it happen.
AAUW Research Reveals New Dimensions to the Gender Pay Gap in Advance of Equal Pay Day
Teaching College Women Salary Negotiation - $tart $mart workshops prepares college women who are approaching the job market with the confidence, knowledge, and skills they need to negotiate salaries and benefits.
Updated November 24, 2014
- Women with workplace power are more depressed. Men, not so much. - Women with job authority -- ones who have the ability to hire and fire people and influence over paychecks -- also have significantly more symptoms of depression than women without this kind of power. At the same time, having job authority slightly decreased these symptoms in men. Having authority over the hiring and firing of employees had the biggest negative impact on women's mental health, more so than the ability to influence pay. Part of that stems from the personal nature of having to fire a person. That factor also negatively impacted men, but not as dramatically as it did women.
- Women's Career Choices Don't Explain the Gender Pay Gap - High-achieving women are paid less than men even when they have similar levels of experience and are in the same fields, according to new Bloomberg Businessweek data. Women graduating business school this year reported an average of $14,548 less in expected annual pay than men, graduating MBAs said in a survey of 9,965 students at 112 schools, conducted as part of our recently published biennial ranking of MBA programs.
- It's Not Your Kids Holding Your Career Back. It's Your Husband - A new study of Harvard Business School graduates from HBS's Robin Ely and Colleen Ammerman and Hunter College sociologist Pamela Stone shows that high-achieving women are not meeting the career goals they set for themselves in their 20s. It's not because they're "opting out" of the workforce when they have kids, but because they're allowing their partners' careers to take precedence over their own.
- Women business grads earn almost $15,000 less than their male counterparts in their first year out of school. - That's according to a new analysis that pretty thoroughly debunks the myth that the gender pay gap is entirely, or even primarily, due to women's career choices.
- Vigilant Eye on Gender Pay Gap - A majority of large companies in North America say they have dedicated teams running these pay equity analyses, but only 46 percent of them think their approach is statistically robust. Even fewer say they have a formal process to fix any inequities, according to a recent report by Mercer, the consultant, which examined 164 (mostly large) companies in 28 countries, employing more than 680,000 women.
- Proof That the Gender Wage Gap Isn't Women's Fault - The gender wage gap - the fact that the average American woman working full time, year round makes 78 percent of what a man will make doing the same - is the result of many factors. In 17 of 22 industries, women were offered less starting money than men. In finance, for example, women's salaries were $22,000 lower, while they were $12,300 lower in tech and $11,500 in consulting.
- The Gender Pay Gap Revealed in Tech; Glassdoor Report - Some highlights from this report show that there is a $6,000 discrepancy in median base salary when comparing women ($94,967, 3.2 years of experience) to men ($101,006, 3.3 years experience) in the software development engineer role at Microsoft.
- Women More Likely to Graduate College, but Still Earn Less Than Men - Women today are more likely than men to complete college and attend graduate school, and make up nearly half of the country's total workforce. Yet past gaps in education and experience appear to be contributing to a persistent pay gap between the sexes, a new report shows. The report from the White House Council of Economic Advisers shows that although women are increasingly becoming more educated and make up a larger portion of the country's workforce, they consistently earn less than men, even when they have similar levels of education.
- 2014 Life Sciences Salary Survey - This year's data reveal notable variation in compensation for life scientists working in different fields, sectors, and regions of the world. In addition to differences across specialties, the most recent results from The Scientist's salary survey revealed varying incomes between researchers in industry and those in academia, between men and women, and for academics working in different countries. Life scientists working in the U.S., for example, earned an average of $99,011, while their European counterparts averaged just $68,361; and around the world, a gender gap in salaries is still apparent, with women earning less than men in the same positions, on average.
- Black Women: Still Trapped By the Pay Gap - Women serve on the Supreme Court, run Fortune 500 companies, and wield political power in the halls of Congress. However, despite these incredible public gains, women still continue to lag behind their male counterparts in some very basic aspects of life: in the workplace. Black women, for example, earn just 64 cents for every White non-Hispanic man's dollar. That is, Black women who work full-time make just 64% of what White non-Hispanic males make---less than both White non-Hispanic women and Black men. Across the country, women of color, particularly African American women and Latinas, have suffered larger wage gaps than white and Asian women since the 1970s. So while the wage gap is an important issue for all women, it is a major concern for historically marginalized women who continue to overwhelmingly bear the double burden of racism and sexism.
- "Nice Girls Don't Negotiate": Why There's Still a Pay Gap - A survey of women CEOs at 2500 of the world's largest publicly-traded companies in the last ten years by Strategy& (formerly Booz & Company) shows that in eight of the last ten years there have been more female CEOs entering the global workforce than leaving it. The study also shows male and female CEOs have similar backgrounds: they are roughly the same age, come from the same region as corporate headquarters, have little international work experience, and only rarely achieve the joint CEO-Chairman title. Problem is, they are still underpaid: women CEOs on average make 80-cents on the dollar compared to their male counterparts, according to a 2013 survey by the Institute for Women's Policy research based on US Labor Department statistics. But even that is an improvement: two years ago, women CEOs made 69-cents compared to each dollar made by male CEOs.
- Why do female CEOs get fired more often than male ones? - Congratulations to all the high-powered women who have made it to the top. You've done it. You've shattered the glass ceiling. You have it all. Now don't fall over the edge. It's called the glass cliff, and as more women take up the corner office, it's a vexing challenge we face.
- U.S. is 65th in world on gender pay gap - Currently, there's no country in the entire world where a woman earns as much as a man for doing the same job. And it's going to take another 81 years for the gender gap to close, according to a new report by the World Economic Forum. The U.S., for instance, narrowed its wage gap by one percentage point to 66% in one year "meaning that women earn about two-thirds of what men earn for similar work according to the perception of business leaders," WEF's economist Saadia Zahidi said.
- Microsoft boss who said women shouldn't ask for pay rises is paid $86m - News of Mr. Nadella's pay package came as the technology chief was still struggling to limit the damage from remarks he made over pay for female executives.
- The More Successful Women Are, The More Having Children Costs Them - High-achieving business women do not typically make 78 cents for every dollar their male peers earn. They make 62 cents for every dollar. That's the finding of a new study out of Harvard, "Dynamics of the Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Financial and Corporate Sectors."
- Men Also Think the Wage Gap Is a Major Issue - Not surprisingly, 41 percent of women say "equal pay" or "fair pay" is the most important issue facing working women. But so do 37 percent of men, according to Gallup. Pay equity has become "a significant issue this year's political campaigns," Gallup's Jeffrey M. Jones writes. "And it resonates with voters." While 51 percent of liberals and 44 percent of moderates name the wage gap as the top issue facing working women, so do 28 percent of conservatives. The No. 2 pick for conservatives is opportunity for promotion at 15 percent.
- Latinas' Equal Pay Day has moved up to Wednesday, October 8 - The U.S. Census Bureau recently released data on women's and men's earnings in 2013, and the 2013 data showed a slight narrowing of the gender pay gap for Latinas. Therefore, the date for Latinas' Equal Pay Day (the symbolic day when Hispanic/Latina women's earnings catch up to non-Hispanic white men's earnings from the previous year) moved up slightly, by about one month.
- Senate blocks pay equity bill - Senate Republicans rejected a measure written by Senate Democrats aimed at bridging differences in pay between men and women. The Paycheck Fairness Act fell short 52-40, failing to clear a 60-vote procedural vote hurdle on Monday evening, the third time the measure has failed since spring of 2012.
- Gender Pay Gap, Still Wide, Narrows by Most Since Recession Began - The pay gap between women and men narrowed last year, albeit slightly, the first time the gap contracted by more than a penny since the recession began in 2007. Differences in pay between genders has wide implications. One is found in the types of families that live in poverty. The Census report showed that 11.2% of families with children live in poverty. But that number jumps to 30.6% for families led by a single mother. The poverty rate for married-couple families was 5.8% last year.
- AAUW Reacts to New Gender Wage Gap Figure - AAUW Vice President of Government Relations Lisa Maatz issued the following statement in response to the findings from the just-released U.S. Census Bureau report, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013. We are disappointed but not surprised to see that the gender wage gap narrowed only slightly in 2013, leaving a gap that still undermines women's and families' efforts to make ends meet. To make the kind of economic change that women and families need, we must have legislative victories.
- Ed-Tech Leader Gender Gaps Identified in New Study - Female technology leaders working for U.S. school districts appear to earn less money than their male counterparts and face more limited access to the top positions in their field-despite tending to be more experienced and equally, if not better, credentialed.
- Gender gap is more than just pay - Equality in the workplace might be improving, but there's still a large chasm between men and women. And the gender gap is not just about how much you're paid. Overall, men's company budgets are twice as large as those of women with three times the number of direct reporting staff. That means women are essentially having to do more with less.
- Women Face a Catch-22 Despite Three-Decade Shift in Gender Roles - Compared to men, there appears to be a double standard for employed women. Employed women are encouraged to enact masculine behaviours, yet still maintain their femininity. This expectation has led to the "backlash effect": women who display agentic behaviours may be perceived as more competent, but less likeable socially.
- Fighting the Gender Pay Gap - My daughter started her senior year of high school this fall. With college fast approaching, I've had some fun discussions with her and family friends about future professions. One thing keeps coming up: It's the 21st century, and our daughters may still earn less than men for doing the same work.
- How a race for female tech talent might narrow the industry's gender pay gap - In report after report, companies like Apple, Google and Facebook all acknowledge that their workforces tilt heavily male. Silicon Valley companies are notoriously dominated by men, particularly in leadership roles and in jobs involving advanced technical skills. Men account for 7 in 10 workers at Twitter, for example.
- Senate advances Paycheck Fairness Act - Senate Republicans decided not to block the advancement of the Paycheck Fairness Act. Democrats needed 60 votes to advance the legislation procedurally; the tally was 73-25 on Wednesday.
- Income Transparency, Minimum Wage Increase Could Help Close Gender Pay Gap - As for closing the gap, one of the ideas being floated is transparency about what you earn in the workplace, meaning I can ask you what you make and there are no repercussions. That level of transparency may make some squeamish, but protections against penalizing employees for sharing this kind of sensitive information are already being put in place on a federal level.
- Strengthening America's Economic Future Means Raising Women's Pay - More than ever before, the welfare of American households is tied to the welfare of working women. In fact, the only reason we've seen any improvement in living standards for most U.S. households over the past 40 years has been more women entering the workforce. Were it not for women working more hours, the typical American household would likely be no better off, and potentially far worse off, today than 40 years ago.
- Gap Narrows, but Pay Disparity Still Exists in Minnesota - Pay disparity between men and women still exists in Minnesota, even as recent legislation moves to close any differences in pay between employees doing the same work. In the past, employees have been subject to discipline or have been forbidden to talk about their pay, but in the Women's Economic Security Act it's important for employees to understand how they're faring, and the only way they can figure out if they're being paid equally is to understand what their counterparts are being paid.
- More Workers Are Claiming 'Wage Theft' - Some federal and state officials agree that more companies are violating wage laws than ever before, pointing to the record number of enforcement actions they have pursued. They complain that more employers - perhaps motivated by fierce competition or a desire for higher profits - are flouting wage laws.
- Salary Gap: Most Lucrative Industries Pay Women the Least - The human resource firm TriNet has been documenting how small and midsize businesses stack up. The medium salary for female workers at small and midsize firms was 83 percent of the medium pay for men, according to a new report (pdf) from the San Leandro (Calif.) company. Another discouraging finding: Women's salaries are closest to men's in industries that pay the least.
- This Major Retailer Has Eliminated The Pay Gap Between Women And Men - "[O]n average, women at Gap Inc. are paid at a one-to-one ratio compared to their male counterparts across our organization," a spokeswoman confirmed for ThinkProgress over email. "Globally, this translates to pay equality across our major geographies, whether dollar for dollar, pound for pound, yen for yen or euro for euro." While she couldn't provide an breakdown by position, she noted, "We pay dollar for dollar across the organization, regardless of level."
- Women's stories of discovering unequal pay - Guardian US and ProPublica readers share their stories of finding out that they were paid less than their male colleagues. One thing is clear, however: most American women are still not getting paid as much as their male colleagues. Being underpaid doesn't automatically make you a victim. It's an alert to stop being one.
- Britain: New mothers sidelined to 'mummy track' in their millions - Six out of 10 mothers say their careers were "derailed" after becoming pregnant, and admitted they faced open discrimination in the workplace, research from law firm Slater and Gordon has revealed. More than 60 per cent of survey respondents said they felt their boss had a negative perception of working mothers, which meant they were mistreated when they returned to work, and overlooked for career opportunities. Women often found themselves being offered less senior roles (18 per cent), overlooked for promotion or opportunities (27 per cent) and even demoted (8 per cent) on returning to the workplace.
- Women's rights and their money: a timeline from Cleopatra to Lilly Ledbetter - When did women get the right to inherit property and open bank accounts? How long did it take until women won the legal right to be served in UK pubs? Our timeline traces women's financial rights from ancient societies to the present day.
- Income gap widens in Colorado and nationally as new jobs pay less - The nation has recaptured the jobs lost during the downturn and unemployment has moved steadily lower in most states. Job gains during the recovery came largely in sectors that paid much less than those sectors where jobs were lost, contributing to a widening of the income gap in most metro areas, according to a study released Monday by the United States Conference of Mayors.
- Oregon Identifies Pay Gap Problem Areas - In a letter last month, Gov. John Kitzhaber asked the administrative services agency to focus on fixing the pay gap.
- Retail's Choice: How Raising Wages and Improving Schedules for Women in the Retail Industry Would Benefit America - Today, women make up nearly half of America's workforce, and there is little question that their success in the economy is critical to the nation's prosperity. Yet every day across America, millions of women go to work in low paying jobs that fail to move their families out of poverty. One such low-paid position is the most common occupation in America today: retail salesperson. The typical woman working as a salesperson earns just $10.58 an hour: a wage that keeps a family of three near poverty, even if the employee is able to secure enough hours for full-time work. American women disproportionately hold the retail industry's lowest-paid positions.
- The Earnings Gap Between Married and Non-Married Moms is Widening - It's probably no shocker that working moms make less money than women not weighed down by kids. In a study released Tuesday, Columbia University and Russell Sage Foundation scholar Jane Waldfogel finds that U.S. mothers in their prime-working years (usually defined as 25 to 44 years old) face a roughly 5% "motherhood wage penalty" in the workplace relative to childless women workers, a figure she estimates hasn't improved much since the late 1970s.
- Pay Gap Is Because of Gender, Not Jobs - The majority of the pay gap between men and women actually comes from differences within occupations, not between them - and widens in the highest-paying ones like business, law and medicine, according to data from Claudia Goldin, a Harvard University labor economist and a leading scholar on women and the economy.
- The Gender Pay Gap State-By-State - This month the Census revealed the latest income numbers for full-time, year-round workers by gender, age and region. While the national statistics have been stagnant for a decade (on average, a full-time, year round female worker earns 77 cents to every dollar her male peers earn), there is movement on the state level. Here we look, by 2012 median earnings, how the 50 states rank in terms of paycheck equality. No. 4 New York - Female full-time annual earnings: $43,000 Male full-time annual earnings: $51,274 Earnings on the dollar: 84 cents.
- Why does Hollywood think that men are worth $42 million more than women?
- Women business owners face gender gap, report says - The report by Democratic staffers of the Senate Small Business & Entrepreneurship Committee found that while businesses owned by women account for 30 percent of small companies, they receive only 4.4 percent of the total dollars in conventional small-business loans. That amounts to $1 for every $23 loaned. Between 1997 and 2007, women-owned businesses added about 500,000 jobs, while the rest of privately held companies cut jobs.
- Here's Just How Much It Pays To Be Conventionally Attractive - Heavier women earn less. Taller people earn more. With how much symmetrical faces are rewarded among professional quarterbacks, one would think it directly affects how far they can throw the ball.
- The Equal Pay Webinar on April 17, 2013 that was hosted by the Women’s Bureau and The American Association of University Women is now available!
- Recording of the Equal Pay Webinar
- Women’s Bureau Equal Pay Guides: “An Employer’s Guide to Equal Pay,” and “A Guide to Women’s Equal Pay Rights” (available in Spanish, Chinese, French and Vietnamese upon request)
- The Bureau of Labor Statistics Women in the Workforce Databook
- The American Association of University Women report, “Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year After College Graduation”
- The American Association of University Women Salary Calculator
- The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Equal Pay Fact Sheet
- The Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce Report: “What’s it Worth: The Economic Value of College Majors”
- In the News: One Year After Graduation, Female Pay Lags Behind - AAUW published "Graduating to a Pay Gap"
Branch Homepage - Public Policy Issues to Watch