For more information: AAUW Fact Sheets and Position Papers on Affirmative Action, Athletics, Education, Managed Care Reform, Reproductive Rights, and Social Security Reform.
Equal Pay Day Action Kit, a Guide to taking action on Equal Pay Day - Whether you want to run your own Equal Pay Day event or just show your support and spread the word, this guide will connect you with the ideas and resources you need to make it happen.
AAUW Research Reveals New Dimensions to the Gender Pay Gap in Advance of Equal Pay Day
Teaching College Women Salary Negotiation - $tart $mart workshops prepares college women who are approaching the job market with the confidence, knowledge, and skills they need to negotiate salaries and benefits.
Updated July 24, 2014
- Women business owners face gender gap, report says - The report by Democratic staffers of the Senate Small Business & Entrepreneurship Committee found that while businesses owned by women account for 30 percent of small companies, they receive only 4.4 percent of the total dollars in conventional small-business loans. That amounts to $1 for every $23 loaned. Between 1997 and 2007, women-owned businesses added about 500,000 jobs, while the rest of privately held companies cut jobs.
- Here's Just How Much It Pays To Be Conventionally Attractive - Heavier women earn less. Taller people earn more. With how much symmetrical faces are rewarded among professional quarterbacks, one would think it directly affects how far they can throw the ball.
- Cuomo Approves Labor Protections For Unpaid Interns - The new law, which takes effect immediately, would extend anti-discrimination protections to unpaid interns when it comes to hiring, firing, or terms of employment as well as retaliation.
- NH Governor Signs Paycheck Fairness Act - New Hampshire Gov. Maggie Hassan (D) signed a law addressing pay equity between men and women in the state. The Paycheck Fairness Act updates state law to remove loopholes, increase transparency in wages, and give workers the resources they need to combat discrimination without fear of retaliation by their employer. Congrats to AAUW of New Hampshire, which worked on this bill from start to finish, including a rally in the state capital on Equal Pay Day 2014!
- Equal Pay for Women Would Mean a More Secure Retirement for All - The link is simple and clear: Women earn less than men in the workplace - almost $450 billion less in total each year nationwide - resulting in lower Social Security payments after retirement. The pay discrimination against women not only hurts their current well-being and future security, but also means tens of billions less in revenues to fund Social Security.
- 16 U.S. Cities Where Women Actually Earn More Than Men - Women continue to make strides in workforce participation, yet not all female laborers are treated the same across the country. It turns out, where women live impacts how much they make and how equal their earnings will be to their male counterparts.
- Women CEOs Are Good For Business, Says Study - An analysis from Fortune showed that Fortune 1000 companies with female CEOs record better stock market returns than those with male CEOs. Only 51 of the Fortune 1000 companies are run by women. The number of female-headed Fortune 500 companies has grown from just two in 1998 to 24 in 2014, an all-time high. The Fortune study also revealed that female-led companies generate 7 percent of Fortune 1000's total revenue, even though women only make up 5 percent of Fortune 1000 CEOs. And of those female fortune 1000 CEOs who chose to disclose their family status, over 80 percent reported that they are also wives and mothers.
- It Will Take 75 Years for Women to Achieve Equal Pay, Says Oxfam - Poverty, discrimination and unpaid labor are among the barriers facing women. Women still have a ways to go until they're paid the same as men. According to a new report released today by Oxfam, the gender pay gap will likely close in 75 years, as long as it continues to melt away at its current rate. The agency is encouraging G20 countries to asses their agendas on gender inequality when they summit in Australia later this year. Oxfam asks member countries to extend their commitment to tackling barriers to women's social and economic participation set in the 2012 Los Cabos Declaration.
- Women Allege Goldman Sachs Took Company Trips to Strip Clubs, Ignored Sexual Assault - The two former female employees who previously filed a gender discrimination lawsuit against Goldman Sachs are seeking to turn it into a class action suit to make their case on behalf of all female associates and vice presidents at the investment bank, investment management, and securities divisions.
- Closing the Pay Gap for Asian-American Women - When taken as a whole, AAPI workers have the highest level of earnings compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Half of full-time AAPI workers earned $987 or more per week in 2013, approximately 14 percent higher than the median weekly earnings of white workers. On the other hand, the gap in earnings between men and women in the AAPI community is very high. As you can see in the chart below, the weekly median earnings of AAPI women is $839, compared to $1,125 for AAPI men. While AAPI women earn more than other women of color, they only earn 75 cents for every dollar earned by AAPI men.
- Male-female pay gap remains entrenched at White House - The White House has not narrowed the gap between the average pay of male and female employees since President Obama's first year in office, according to a Washington Post analysis of new salary data. The average male White House employee currently earns about $88,600, while the average female White House employee earns about $78,400, according to White House data released Tuesday. That is a gap of 13 percent.
- Goldman Sachs, Tinder slapped with sex discrimination lawsuits - Charges were made by former female executives against tech startup Tinder and banking giant Goldman Sachs. Whitney Wolfe, former marketing vice president of the popular dating app Tinder, is suing the company for "atrocious sexual harassment and sex discrimination." Meanwhile, a lawsuit filed by two former female Goldman Sachs employees against the firm alleges Wall Street sexism.
- Female College Grads Still Earn Less Than Men - Many female millennials believe that they're exempt from the wage gap. After all, the debate surrounding equal pay has raged on for over 40 years, from the time their grandmothers were working. They would be wrong.
- One place where the glass ceiling has cracked open - In the Capital Region, where women lead 13 of the 25 higher education institutions. Nationally, female college presidents are outnumbered by men three to one.
- Even Among The Youngest People In The Workforce, Men Are Making More Than Women - The gender wage gap gets worse as women age, with an acute uptick when they start having children. But that doesn't mean young women start out on an even playing field. A wage gap among young women, particularly college-educated ones, is striking because it comes before some causes of the wage gap kick in.
- AAUW Blog: Male Colleague's Pay Given "Family" Boost over a Mother's Pay - In her first job out of graduate school, Eileen deHaro was paid less than a male colleague because he had a family. Yet so did she. Though deHaro was able to force her employer to pay her equally, she still lost out on wages she deserved for the time she was underpaid. Her experience is shared by mothers nationwide. It takes almost an extra six months - or until June 12 in 2014 - for working mothers' wages to catch up with working fathers' wages from the previous year. Working mothers typically are paid 69 cents for every dollar working fathers are paid.
- MA: New report finds gender pay gap among nonprofit CEOs - More women than men are running Massachusetts area nonprofits, but they are earning less money, according to a new study done by Third Sector New England, an organization dedicated to assisting nonprofits.
- AAUW Blog: Same Job but Less Pay for a Mother- "They actually rewrote the job description to give it to me like that," she said. "They told me it was because I didn't have planning credentials, but I have always wondered if they didn't rewrite it so they could justify the lower wage."
- Why women's pay gap means trouble later in life - Fear of becoming an old bag lady is apparently fairly common, even for high-income female workers. It turns out it might not be such an ungrounded worry. Women are hitting retirement age with lower Social Security benefits than men, as well as less in private savings and less pension income than their male counterparts, according to a new report.
- The Highest-Paid Woman CEO Was Born A Man - The CEO in question is named Martine Rothblatt. She founded Sirius Satellite Radio in 1994, as Martin, then had a sex-change operation. Then she founded United Therapeutics in 1996 and has served as its CEO ever since. That $38 million put Ms. Rothblatt a fair ways above the second-highest paid woman CEO on the New York Times' list, Marissa Mayer of Yahoo. The rest of the 200 with market values over $1 billion, the 189 other CEOs, are men.
- How Retailers Could Narrow The Gender Pay Gap And Lift Women Out Of Poverty - Part of the reason women are struggling in retail is that they suffer from a wage gap. Throughout the industry, the typical woman makes 72 percent of what a man makes. Salespeople have an even bigger gap, as women make $4 less per hour than men on average.
- Women In Sales Must Work 103 Extra Days A Year To Make As Much As Men - Women in sales and related jobs have work 103 extra days every year just to earn the same amount of money as their male colleagues bring in. That's nearly double the average gap for all jobs, which comes out to about 59 more days per year that women need to work to earn the same as men. "It's really striking, because it's the most common occupation in the country right now," Amy Traub, a senior policy analyst at Demos and the author of the study, said of retail work. "It's not a job that's going away."
- The Pay Gap for Women Starts at Graduation - A Harvard survey found that men were about twice as likely to choose finance, technology, or engineering-all highly paid fields-for their first jobs. Eleven percent of women chose engineering or technology, versus 19 percent of men. Ten percent of women chose finance, compared with 24 percent of men. Women were twice as likely to choose public service or not-for-profits, which don't pay as well. Equal numbers of men and women chose consulting.
- Google ends silence on workforce diversity, confirms that it is largely white and male - "We've always been reluctant to publish numbers about the diversity of our workforce at Google," the world's biggest search-advertising company said in a blog post. "We now realize we were wrong, and that it's time to be candid about the issues." The disclosure that Mountain View-based Google is 70 percent male and 61 percent white comes after the discussion about gender diversity in Silicon Valley technology hit a boil last year. Google said it felt it had to disclose its numbers to nurture solutions to the imbalances.
- Stop Mansplaining the 'Boy Crisis' - Sexism Still Holds Women Back - Despite gains for girls in school, a hard look at workforce research reveals that, no, the matriarchy isn't gunning for men. If the economy really was a pull-yourself-up-by-the-bootstraps meritocracy - rather than one where women don't even get boots - then the "boy crisis" handwringers might have a point. Academic rigor, ambition and self-control should be paths to financial success for both men and women. But the economic playing field is not just tilted toward men: it's pockmarked with pitfalls for women that they might not even be able to see coming.
- Female 'A' Students End Up Making Less Than Male 'C' Students - High school GPA is just one of many factors, including gender, that determine a student's future income, according to a new study. It found that women who had a 4.0 GPA in high school still made less on average than men who had a 2.5 GPA.
- Four Reasons why Women MBAs earn less - The number of Women MBAs in top Business Schools has steadily increased over the past 10 years, with schools accepting 30-40% women candidates in the past two years. However, a more disturbing finding is the rising pay gap between Men and Women professionals. The gap is exacerbated in a management position at both mid-level and senior positions.
- Explaining the Gender Wage Gap - The most commonly cited statistic for the gender wage gap asserts that women earn only 77 cents for every dollar earned by men. The “77 cents” formulation is a colloquialism—shorthand for expressing a complex economic truth. Simply put, what it conveys is the fact that, if you average out what all women, working full time, year round, earn and compare that number to what all men working full time, year round, earn, you find that women take home 77 percent of what men do.
- Incoming U. of Michigan president wants employee pay transparency - The University of Michigan's president-to-be says he would like the school to report the supplemental pay and bonuses of its employees, in addition to their salaries. State law requires that the university report employee's base salaries, and faculty have publicly called for the institution to report all compensation. Mark Schlissel, who takes office in July, told the Ann Arbor News that he supports reporting all compensation, "unless there are legal reasons in my way."
- Despite the pay gap, women in the US now have as much job security as men - American women may still be underpaid, but they now have similar job security to men. In 1983, just 4.9% of women had more than 20 years of tenure at their job compared to 12.4% of men. But by 2012 these rates converged-10.10% of women and 11.9% of men had been in their jobs for more than 20 years. Up until the recession, long tenure was becoming less common for men but much more common for women. The rates are now similar across genders. Male tenure may be falling and women's is increasing, but women will probably not overtake men. It's remarkable that the gender wage gap started to narrow staring in the late 1970s. But it's leveled off and hasn't gotten much smaller since the mid-1990s. But during the same period, the tenure gap did continue to narrow-it's only flattened since the recession. We expect seniority to translate into higher pay, but the fact that the tenure gap narrowed while the pay gap hasn't suggests that it's still not the case for women.
- As Jill Abramson exits the NY Times, a look at how women are faring in newsrooms - The departure of Jill Abramson marked an abrupt end to the reign of the first woman to run The New York Times, a role that made her a journalistic pioneer in her own right. Her dismissal comes during the same week as the retirement of Barbara Walters, who broke a glass ceiling at ABC in 1976 by becoming the first woman to sit at a network anchor desk. Both events have prompted a debate about the role of women in American journalism and how much—or how little—has changed over the years.
- The surprise firing of New York Times executive editor Jill Abramson raises eyebrows and questions about whether there's a 'glass cliff' for women in power that's not as evident for men. - “I think that people need to remember that women who have made it to the top have gotten there because of certain qualities,” says Lisa Maatz, vice president of government relations at the American Association of University Women in Washington. “They have had to be better, faster, stronger, more brash, more gruff, however you want to say it, in order to get that far.”
- The best way to close the gender pay gap is to make salaries public - Regardless of exactly what happened at the New York Times, the uproar is a reminder of the consequences of keeping pay a secret, especially at a high level. More broadly, opaque pay-especially in the executive suite-might also contribute to the gender gap because it allows companies to pay different salaries without having to justify them. Making pay more transparent won't close the gap on its own, but it puts a burden on companies to at least explain any disparity, and begin to resolve them.
Radical transparency, as practiced by certain startups, isn't a likely solution at the New York Times. But an executive shouldn't have to find out about a pay gap from a third party.
- AAUW Blog: 77 Cents Doesn't Tell the Whole (Equal Pay) Story - As AAUW's research has shown, women of every race/ethnicity experience a gender pay gap compared with white, non-Hispanic men: American Indian and Alaska Native women (60 percent); Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women (66 percent); white, non-Hispanic women (78 percent); and Asian American women (87 percent).
- Possible Path to Closing Pay Gap - It’s 2014, and women are still paid less than men. Does this suggest that a gender pay gap is an unfortunately permanent fixture? Will it still be with us in 50 years? I would predict yes. But by that point, it will be men who will be earning less than women. My forecast is based on evidence from schools, where it has been easier to work toward a level playing field than in the workplace.
- Transparency as a Way to Beat the Pay Gap - As women continue to earn less money than men, one solution might be to put salaries out in the open. Across the Atlantic, earnings transparency has already had its effects. Norway saw its gender gap shrink after disclosing its citizens' tax returns online. It's now ranked third for smallest wage disparity in the World Economic Forum's 2013 Gender Gap Report - a list where the U.S. comes in at No. 23, one place lower than it was the year before.
- The 5 Best and Worst States for Working Moms - Oregon tops the list, while Louisiana sits at the bottom, according to this latest survey that looks beyond gender pay gaps. NY ranks #5.
- Anheuser-Busch Executive Says She Was Underpaid Millions Because Of Her Gender - In a trial that began last week, Francine Katz, who worked for Anheuser-Busch for 20 years and was formerly the highest ranking female executive, accused the company of underpaying her by millions and excluding her from important functions because of her gender.
Even the highest paid female executives experience a pay gap, making 18 percent less than their male peers. Yahoo's female CEO Marissa Mayer is currently making less than a man who worked under her and was fired by the company, while General Motors's CEO Mary Barra will make less than half of what her male predecessor made this year.
- The Radical Movement To Close The Gender Wage Gap That You've Never Heard Of - The New York State Fair Pay Act has been passed by the state Assembly in all but one year since 2002, according to Beverly Neufeld, director of the Equal Pay Coalition. The bill is "half comparable worth and half wage transparency protections," she said. But it always gets stuck in the Senate, failing to get out of committee.
- For Women in Tech, Pay Gap Is Unusually Small - Female computer scientists make 89 percent of what men in the same occupation make, controlling for age, race, hours and education, according to data from Claudia Goldin, a Harvard University labor economist and expert on women and the economy. For engineering managers, pay is just about equal for men and women. Those numbers are significantly better than in other professions, including finance (66 percent), medicine (71 percent) and law (82 percent).
- Significant gender pay gap found among Medicare doctors - A report analyzing federal data has found that female doctors in the Medicare system make only half as much as their male counterparts. NerdWallet reviewed data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and found that male doctors are paid 88 percent more in annual Medicare reimbursements, with an average of $118,782 per year, compared with $63,346 for women doctors.
- The Equal Pay Webinar on April 17, 2013 that was hosted by the Women’s Bureau and The American Association of University Women is now available!
- Recording of the Equal Pay Webinar
- Women’s Bureau Equal Pay Guides: “An Employer’s Guide to Equal Pay,” and “A Guide to Women’s Equal Pay Rights” (available in Spanish, Chinese, French and Vietnamese upon request)
- The Bureau of Labor Statistics Women in the Workforce Databook
- The American Association of University Women report, “Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year After College Graduation”
- The American Association of University Women Salary Calculator
- The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Equal Pay Fact Sheet
- The Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce Report: “What’s it Worth: The Economic Value of College Majors”
- In the News: One Year After Graduation, Female Pay Lags Behind - AAUW published "Graduating to a Pay Gap"
Branch Homepage - Public Policy Issues to Watch